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Cancer #
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. Malignant Neoplasm.

특징 #

  1. Immortality
  2. Produce "Go" signals
  3. Overide "Stop" signals
  4. Resist cell death
  5. Angiogenesis
  6. Metastasis

Clonal expansion: Cancer is a multi-gene, multi-step disease originating from single abnormal cell (clonal origin)

Carcinogenesis #

Process of tumor induction and development (Tumorigenesis 라고도 한다)

  1. Initiating agent
    • Chemical carcinogenes
    • Viruses
    • Unknown factors
    • Radiation, UV light
    • Replication errors
  2. Promoting agent
  3. Growth inhibitors
    • Hormones - therapeutic or physiological
    • Normal growth inhibitors
    • Age, surgery, radiation, etc.

특정 변이가 Cell signaling의 변화를 일으키고, 이것이 암으로 발전한다.

용어 #

Neoplasia (new growth), Neoplasm (=tumor)

Malignant neoplasm이 우리가 보통 얘기하는 Cancer.

Tumor development

  • Hyperplasia: Increase in number of cells in response to stimulus (e.g. Hormones) reversible process
  • Dysplasia: abnormal type of excessive cell proliferation
  • Cancinoma in situ: uncontrolled growth of cell (do not invade)

Tumor grade

  • grade 1: well differentiation, slow-growling, low malignancy
  • grade 2: mild differentiation, middle malignancy
  • grade 3: poor differentiation, fast-growing, nigh malignancy

Tumor stage

  • T: primary tumor
  • N: regional lymph node involvement
  • M: metastases

Nomenclature

Pattern Differentiation Benign Malignant
Epitherial Glandular / ductal epithelium Adenoma (선종) Adenocarcinoma
Epitherial Liver Hepatic adenoma Hepatoma
Mesenchymal Muscle Leiomyoma Leiomyosarcoma
Mesenchymal Adipocyte Lipoma Liposarcoma
Mesenchymal Bone Osteoma Osteosarcoma
Mesenchymal Cartilage Chondroma Chondrosarcoma
Mesenchymal Endothelial Hemangioma Hemangiosarcoma
Melanocytic Melanocytic nervus Melanoma
Glial Astrocytoma, Ependymoma
Hematopoetic Leukemia (백혈병), Lymphoma (림프종)

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