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Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K, also called Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI3Ks, PI(3)Ks, or PI-3Ks) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as Cell growth, Cell proliferation, Cell differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in Cancer. (

The pathway, with Oncogene PIK3CA and Tumor suppressor gene PTEN, is implicated in insensitivity of cancer tumors to Insulin and IGF1, in Calorie restriction.

About 30% of Breast cancer have gain-of-function mutations involving the alpha-isoform of the PI3K catalytic subunit.

Loss of PTEN activates PI3K activity.

Classes in human

  • class 1 catalytic
    • PIK3CA: PI3K, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
    • PIK3CB: PI3K, catalytic, beta polypeptide
    • PIK3CG: PI3K, catalytic, gamma polypeptide
    • PIK3CD: PI3K, catalytic, delta polypeptide
  • class 1 regulatory
    • PIK3R1: PI3K, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)
    • PIK3R2: PI3K, regulatory subunit 2 (beta)
    • PIK3R3: PI3K, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma)
    • PIK3R4: PI3K, regulatory subunit 4
    • PIK3R5: PI3K, regulatory subunit 5
    • PIK3R6: PI3K, regulatory subunit 6
  • class 2
    • PIK3C2A: PI3K, class 2, alpha polypeptide
    • PIK3C2B: PI3K, class 2, beta polypeptide
    • PIK3C2G: PI3K, class 2, gamma polypeptide
  • class 3



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