GTPases are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved G domain common to all GTPases.
GTPases play an important role in:
- Signal transduction at the intracellular domain of transmembrane receptors, including recognition of taste, smell and light.
- Protein biosynthesis (aka translation) at the ribosome.
- Control and differentiation during cell division.
- Translocation of proteins through membranes.
- Transport of vesicles within the cell. (GTPases control assembly of vesicle coats).